Solved: input will get only number

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JavaScript, a dynamic and versatile programming language, is key to powering interactivity on the web. It’s an integral part of the web development ecosystem. Among the many problems that JavaScript helps solve, this article will focus specifically on the problem of ensuring that an input field can accept only numeric values.

### JavaScript technique to restrict input to numbers only

The solution we will use involves vanilla JavaScript, without the need for external libraries.

Here’s the operation logic summarily: We will create an event listener on the input field that will react to the keypress event. Whenever a keypress event is fired, the event listener will evaluate a regular expression test on the keypress event. If the regular expression test fails, the input event will be prevented.

Let’s dive into the code implementation.

document.querySelector('input').addEventListener('keypress', function (evt) {
    var charCode = (evt.which) ? evt.which : evt.keyCode;
    if (charCode != 46 && charCode > 31 && (charCode < 48 || charCode > 57))

### Step-by-step explanation of the code

This code attaches a ‘keypress’ event listener to the input field. Once a keypress event is triggered, it first checks the ASCII value of the character. If it’s not within the range of numeric ASCII values (48-57 inclusive), the event’s default action (inserting the character into the input field) is prevented.

Let’s break it down:

  1. querySelector(‘input’): This is a method that returns the first input field that matches the specified selector inside the document.
  2. addEventListener(‘keypress’, function(evt)): This method adds an event listener of the specified type (keypress) to the selected DOM element. The second parameter is a function that is executed when the event is triggered.
  3. evt.which ? evt.which : evt.keyCode: This is a conditional operation that ensures compatibility with different browsers. `evt.which` is undefined in some older browsers, in which case `evt.keyCode` is used.
  4. If (charCode != 46 && charCode > 31 && (charCode < 48 || charCode > 57)): This is a condition that checks if the character is a non-decimal number. 46 is the ASCII value for the dot character and numbers fall in the ASCII range between 48 and 57.
  5. evt.preventDefault(): Finally, if the condition is met, the default action of the event – which is inputting the character into the input field – is prevented.

### Further insight into the functions and libraries involved

The above solution employs built-in JavaScript functions and properties and does not involve any external libraries. Here’s a bit more on the main elements used in our solution:

JavaScript Event Listeners

JavaScript events are what make web pages responsive and interactive. An event listener listens for a specific event to occur.

In the context of HTML documents, numerous events can occur, such as a user clicking on an element, hovering over an element, pressing a key on the keyboard, etc. These events can be utilized to run scripts that have been defined.

JavaScript Regular Expressions

A JavaScript regular expression is a sequence of characters that forms a search pattern. In our solution, we used a regular expression to check if the input value fell within the desired range. Regular expressions make it easy to test multiple conditions and are very handy when it comes to form validation.

In conclusion, restricting the input to numbers only in a field is a key activity in form validation, one of the common applications of JavaScript on the web. This solution not only ensures valid data entry but also enhances user experience by preventing invalid keystrokes.

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