# Solved: string to int

Sure thing! Here’s an extensive article on converting a String to an Integer in Haskell:

Working with data types is a fundamental part of programming. In a high-level, statically-typed language like Haskell, these operations can sometimes be a bit unintuitive. Our focus today is a commonly encountered situation: converting a String to an Int in Haskell.

In a dynamically typed language, you might be able to get away with using a string as an int interchangeably. But due to Haskell’s nature as a statically typed language, we need to execute a type conversion first. Let’s delve into the solution to this scenario.

## Library for the Conversion

Haskell’s Text.Read library provides us with the function readMaybe which is great for our purposes. The function will try to parse the given string into the requested type. If it succeeds, it will return Just of the value, if it fails, it will return Nothing.

```import Text.Read (readMaybe)

convert :: String -> Maybe Int
convert str = readMaybe str :: Maybe Int
```

## Details of the Conversion Process

In the code snippet above, the function convert takes a string as input. Using the readMaybe function, it attempts to convert that string into an integer. The type signature `Maybe Int` indicates that this function will return either a Just Int (if the conversion is successful) or a Nothing, if the conversion fails. This is a safe and preferred way to handle this operation.

Again, let’s look at another convenience function we have at our disposal. This function not only converts the string into integer but also provides a default value if the conversion fails – the `fromMaybe` function.

## Converting String to Int with a Default Value

Now suppose we don’t want our function to return a Maybe Int, but just an Int. In that case, we can add a default value to our conversion function.

```import Data.Maybe (fromMaybe)

convertDefault :: String -> Int
convertDefault str = fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe str)
```

In the above code, `fromMaybe` takes two arguments: a default value and a Maybe value. If the Maybe value is Nothing, `fromMaybe` returns the default value. Otherwise, it unwraps the Just value and returns it.

As you can see, the Haskell libraries offer comprehensive functionality for converting strings to integers. Based on your application requirements, you may choose one method over the other, considering factors like error handling, performance, and default return values.

Using the Text.Read and Data.Maybe libraries, you can transform strings into integers, thus harnessing the robust type system of Haskell without compromising safety or efficiency. Whether you choose to use `readMaybe` or `fromMaybe`, you can always consider the possibility of failure due to a bad input and guard against it accordingly. This is where Haskell’s strength as a statically typed language shines.

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