COBOL, an acronym for Common Business Oriented Language, is one of the oldest programming languages, developed in the late 1950s. Despite its age, it remains widely used in many business organizations around the globe. One of its key features is the PERFORM statement, which simplifies repetitive tasks by allowing a block of code to be executed multiple times. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of the PERFORM statement, its usage and its implementation in detail.
The PERFORM Solution
The PERFORM statement allows a programmer to repeatedly execute a segment of code or a set of instructions within the program until a certain condition is met. This powerful feature of COBOL helps to reduce code redundancy and aids in streamlining the code structure.
PERFORM VARYING transaction_number FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL transaction_number > 100
COMPUTE total_transaction = total_transaction + transaction_value
IF total_transaction > maximum_value THEN
The above sample code demonstrates the use of the PERFORM statement in a COBOL program. Here, the total_transaction variable is incremented by transaction_value for each transaction_number till transaction_number exceeds 100 or total_transaction exceeds maximum_value.
Parsing the PERFORM Code
Let’s break down the code snippet to better understand what’s happening here.
- PERFORM VARYING is used to initiate a loop, much like a ‘for’ loop in other programming languages.
- transaction_number FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL transaction_number > 100 – This line initializes the transaction_number at 1 and increments it by 1 with each iteration. The loop will continue until the transaction_number exceeds 100.
- COMPUTE total_transaction = total_transaction + transaction_value – In this line, the total_transaction value is continuously updated with each transaction’s value in the loop.
- IF total_transaction > maximum_value THEN EXIT PERFORM – This is the loop’s exit condition. If the total transactions value exceeds the maximum_value, the PERFORM loop is aborted.
PERFORM and Its Relatives
Apart from the PERFORM VARYING command discussed above, there are other types of PERFORM statements too, like PERFORM TIMES – allowing a block of code to execute a set number of times or PERFORM UNTIL – repeating the code block until a specific condition is met, and many more.
Understanding these different aspects of the PERFORM statement in COBOL can help with efficient and effective coding, thereby greatly improving code performance and readability.
Now that we have a firm grip on the use of PERFORM in COBOL, let’s switch gears and explore the intriguing world of fashion.
The Evolution of Fashion Styles
Fashion, often a reflection of societal changes and cultural development, has seen a dramatic evolution over the years. From Victorian dresses of the 19th century to high waist jeans of the 21st century, fashion has continually shifted with changing tastes, trends and technologies.
The Victorian era was characterized by corsets, large skirts and lavish fabrics; while Roaring Twenties introduced flapper dresses and stylish headpieces. The 1960s saw the emergence of the Mod style with vibrant colors, bold geometric shapes, and mini skirts. Punk fashion became popular in the 70s, characterized by rebellion, featuring leather jackets, band T-shirts, and ripped jeans.
Each fashion era presents a distinct style reflecting the mood and sentiments of the time. Recognizing these patterns not only enriches one’s understanding of fashion but can also provide inspiration for modern fashion trends.
Combining Garments and Colors
How one combines garments and colors can greatly affect the overall look. The key is to understand color theory and the role of silhouette in creating a balanced outfit.
A basic understanding of the color wheel can help in creating harmonious color combinations. Colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel are complementary and when paired together, can create a vibrant, high-energy look. Analogous colors, those next to each other on the wheel, can produce a more cohesive, low contrast ensemble.
Silhouette refers to the overall shape and structure of an outfit. Balance can be achieved by mixing fitted pieces with loose ones. For instance, pairing a fitted top with wide-leg pants or a loose blouse with skinny jeans can yield a balanced, fashionable look. These principles, combined with personal style and current trends, are the foundation of effective fashion styling.